A specialist in injuries and damage to the hip, ankle, and foot (ankle problems and treatments), Dr. Carreira welcomes patients from the age of adolescence to the elderly.
Ankle pain may have a number of different causes, ranging from sports injuries to degenerative conditions (wear and tear to inflammatory conditions.) A careful assessment of x-rays, physical examination, and a detailed history help to make an accurate diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. Sometimes additional imaging such as an MRI may be helpful to make a more specific diagnosis. MRI’s are not necessary in many cases, and Dr. Carreira will order them when appropriate. CT scans are performed when detailed examination of the bone is needed, especially in cases of fractures or when infection is suspected. Many pains require some time to resolve, and a few weeks and some simple treatments such as NSAID’s may be enough.
If nonoperative treatments, which may include medications, activity modification, and physical therapy, fail and do not provide significant pain relief and improved function, surgery may be a treatment option. Depending on the injury, injections may be of benefit in the treatment of certain conditions.
Arthritis is a degenerative condition that causes pain. Although treatment options are similar across many joints of the human body, a special ankle brace or orthosis may be useful to minimize arthritic pain of the ankle. These braces also can help patients experience the feeling of an ankle fusion (arthrodesis), in terms of limiting motion and experiencing its minimal to no effect on gait.
Please note that the content on this website does not constitute medical advice about ankle problems and treatments. Visitors to this site should not consider any of the information on our website as applicable to their medical condition without a formal consultation first. Visitors to this site are encouraged to make an appointment with Dr. Carreira.
Below is a list of the more common foot surgical procedures. (This list is not meant to include all the procedures which Dr. Carreira performs.)
The following is a partial list of ankle problems that Dr. Carreira treats.
- Achilles Pain
- Achilles Tendon Tear
- Ankle Arthritis
- Ankle Cartilage (Osteochondral) Defect
- Ankle Sprain and Ankle Instability
- Anterior Ankle Impingement
- Fracture of the Ankle (Broken Ankle)
- Os Navicular: Accessory Bone Removal
- Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS)
- Posterior Impingement / Os Trigonum / Trigonal Process
- Posterior Tibial Tendon Injury
- Rheumatoid Deformity and Arthritis